Uncategorized

roland barthes camera lucida punctum

Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Kundera goes to great lengths to qualify the nature of kitsch. Her mouth slightly towards down and the eyes shut, while she keeps her baby against her cheek is very touching. 2. What I can see instead, is a heavyhearted, troubled kid, lost inside, searching for a reason why. The famous French literary theorist and philosopher wrote Camera Lucida in 1980 shortly after the death of his mother. That small but strong detail for me makes the difference and has gained the attribute of punctum. But what affects me is the little hand. My interpretation would be that the mom had sees enough with those eyes while facing up the miserable reality in which they live. There is a tension here, acknowledged by Barthes himself. It is simultaneously an inquiry into the nature and essence of photography and a eulogy to Barthes' late mother. Table of Contents. He seems to mirror his mothers torment in what he sees, maybe this is the proof that he/she has realised the abject poverty that surrounds them. While far from the last word on photography in this post-structuralist postmodern world of ours, and (as Geoff Dyer cautions in his forward) while far from the last word even in Barthes’ own thinking, nevertheless the studium/punctum delimiters together form a useful point of departure when examining a contemporary photograph and asking: is this worth my attention? The girl has assumed the role of the mother to the child and has an air of wisdom not usually associated with a child of that age. Reading—Barthe’s Camera Lucida alanbulley Books , Learning log , Reading , Reading 20th Jan 2020 22nd Mar 2020 6 Minutes Roland Barthes’ short book on the nature of photography seems, at times, less about photography than it is an extended personal … The punctum is the dress and the juxtaposition that it causes within the image. With the eyes open, and noticeable lines formed on his brow. @500px posts images of mountains reflected in clear lakes and sunsets that light the sky on fire. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Photography and Writings of David Allan Barker. The way the girl holds the baby leads me to believe they are related to each other. The place Mrs T and her family of five, including the child pictured in this photograph, inhabit, is a decaying terraced house in Sheffield. Nick Hedges was born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 1943. In other words, kitsch is studium. Roland Barthes’ Camera Lucida was published in 1980-81, Photography has been with us, in its earliest forms, through the explorations and collaborations between Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre and Nicéphore Niépce, concretely since 1829. Your email address will not be published. It was a tool that allowed the artist to be more precise. He has been involved as a photographer and researcher for over thirty years, with a particular attention on working for Shelter, the National Campaign for the Homeless in London. I respond with “Wow!” and (since I’m a photographer) “I wish I’d taken that.” As the image below attests, I try to achieve the same effect. Camera Lucida is not a how-to-photography book, the photograph only serves Roland as an object from which we observe his emotional reaction. This essay ofostensibly about some Eisenstein stills, anticipates many of Camera Lucida’ s ideas and connects them back to still earlier ones. According to Barthes, punctum is the quality which breaks (or punctuates the studium. The first thing to catch my eye in this stunning image is the important role played by the light. Schwankend zwischen systematischen Feststellungen und sehr intimen, unter anderem den Tod seiner Mutter betreffenden Teilen, gab Barthes seinem Essay den Untertitel Bemerkung zur Photographie (Note sur la photographie). The third and last photograph I am going to do a studium and punctum analysis of is this one. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. – Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes. I look deeper, and I cannot find the radiant and carefree look of a child anywhere. Here, I draw on Milan Kundera’s novel, The Unbearable Lightness of Being. In simple terms, the studium is all the information which can be gleaned from a photograph which derives from the cultural context in which it exists. punctum = Punkt, kleinste Größe; auch: Augenblick Von Roland Barthes in seiner Studie über die Fotografie (1980) identifiziertes und theoretisiertes visuelles Phänomen. ( Log Out /  Sontag, Susan – famous American critic of film, photography and cultural theory and an expert on Barthes (she actually edited The Barthes Reader in 1987, a selection of texts by Roland Barthes, from which Camera Lucida is interestingly omitted). Commenting on artists such as Avedon, Clifford, Mapplethorpe, and Nadar, Roland Barthes presents photography as being outside the codes of language or culture, acting on the body as much as on the mind, and rendering death and loss more acutely than any other medium. Your email address will not be published. Barthes described the photograph as ‘the living image of a dead thing.’ This was something that it shared in common with the painting, which had originated – as documented by ancient Egyptian funerary objects – in portraits of the dead. The subject is a young girl cradling and a crying infant .This photograph was shot in June 1969, in Birmingham. Translated by Richard Howard. Like ... (a fetish), flattered like an idol that does not leave its niche; for me, there is no punctum in the pornographic image; at most it amuses me (and even then, boredom follows quickly). Illustrated. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography by Roland Barthes Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography PDF Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography by by Roland Barthes This Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography book is not really ordinary book, you have it then the world is in your hands. Her gaze is one of fear and confusion, that is centred straight down the lens of the camera. Since the little girl who is looking out the door’s glass is a very strong image, in my opinion, the boy/girl’s figure is pushed into the background more like a spectator. It is chilling and somehow spooky to behold. In these images, no punctum: a certain shock — the literal can traumatize — but no disturbance; the photograph can “shout,” not wound. I will compare these two essays to Roland Barthes’ book Camera Lucida, published in 1980, in which he structures his discussion of photography using the terms studium and punctum. If I think about a child, I would imagine them the other side of the door, free to run and play. On a busy week some ideas and thoughts on Camera Lucida; the studium and the punctum (Barthes, R., Camera Lucida, Fontana 1981 p26-7) This images frames a woman who is tenderly embracing her young son whilst he is drinking from his baby bottle. Camera Lucida (French: La chambre claire) is a short book published in 1980 by the French literary theorist and philosopher Roland Barthes. He looks at photographs; he thinks about photographs, and he writes whatever occurs camara lucida roland barthes him that seems worthy of sharing. New York: Hill and Wang/Farrar, Straus & Giroux. Understanding the way in which the author wrote when outlining these terms is vital to being able to apply them to one’s own knowledge. When looking at her in detail, I get the impression that she doesn’t know where she belongs. A concept from Roland Barthes' book Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. The images taken when he was commissioned by Shelter to document the deprived house conditions suffered by many families in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the major cities of this country, such as London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Sheffield, Glasgow generated a collection of over 1,000 photographs which is currently displayed at the Science Museum, in a touching exhibition titled Make Life Worth Living. (E. L. Doctorow, Homer and Langley) I Punctum saliens . It is the detail which reveals the givenness of the studium. He writes: “[I]t has the extension of field” which “always refers to a classical body of information….” He goes on: Thousands of photographs consist of this field, and in these photographs I can, of course, take a kind of general interest, one that is even stirred sometimes, but in regard to them my emotion requires the rational intermediary of an ethical and political culture. Required fields are marked *. It took me a while to understand in which direction his eyes where pointing. In Camera Lucida Roland Barthes lays out two concepts for the theory of photography, primarily concerned with being able to critically analyse photographs more coherently. It is chilling and somehow spooky to behold. a photograph which is all studium and no punctum: The unary Photograph has every reason to be banal, “unity” of composition being the first rule of vulgar (and notably, of academic) rhetoric: “The subject,” says one handbook for amateur photographers, “must be simple, free of useless accessories; this is called the Search for Unity.”. It seems to be a dress packed carefully into plastic. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ― Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. This time, the task assigned to me for BTEC National Diploma in Photography is to pick three photographs included in Hedges’s stunning collection, and analyse them in order to find my own “Studium” and “Punctum”. Christopher Stuart 763 views. This sense of failure is written on her face. Barthes’ description is opaque and I don’t claim to fully grasp it. The death of his mother prompts him to look at photographs of her and of his family, to see what he can recover that reminds him of her essence. In 'Camera Lucida', Barthes suggests that there are two elements to every photograph. She instills in me a sense of entrapment. The door, huge and shut, acts as a metaphor for her social situation. Barthes offers illustrations. Kitsch causes two tears to flow in quick succession. One of the characters, Sabina, is an artist who, near the novel’s end, finds her aesthetic sensibilities at war with an oppressive and pervasive kitsch. The photography collection this image is part of, offers the challenge that it may however, in fact be safer that side of the door, owing to the poor conditions depicted in the other images in the set. Eventually, I realised they look at the main subject but without any kind of support. Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. At the risk of oversimplification, studium is what lies in the background; it is our assumptions, the visual equivalent of our Sitz im Leben. For example, Barthes’ title Camera Lucida is dialectical in that it subtly references the camera obscura – the gadget which, at the time, was used as the mainstream metaphor for photography. A Latin word exist to designate this wound, this prick, this mark made by a pointed instrument: the word suits me all the better in that is also refers to the notion of punctuation, and because the photographs I am speaking of are in effect punctuated, sometimes even speckled with these sensitive points; precisely these marks are so many points.” (26-27), Little girl looks out from a window panel. Punctum is the element of a photograph that forces us to acknowledge the existence of shit, or (since shit is probably used as a metaphor) the inevitability of death. This points us to one of the virtues of a photograph: its subversive quality. Little girl looks out from a window panel. To wound. The girl wants to keep hold of the baby as much for her own comfort as for the protection of the infant. That would make in my opinion the lighting’s game even more interesting, since the light intensity goes fading progressively from subject to subject. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. CAMARA LUCIDA ROLAND BARTHES PDF. Keywords: Roland Barthes, Mourning Diary , Camera Lucida, film, photography, punctum 'Maybe he wouldn't use photographs.' It subverts our travel-brochure expectations for a lagoon by hinting at the possibility that the water takes its colour, not from glacial runoff, but from chemical waste. He is Head of photography at Wolverhampton University. Barthes later refines his description by writing of the unary photograph i.e. The baby, on the other hand, holds on to that innocent childhood curiosity, and surveys his world. This embrace though, looks different to me from the previous one ( mom with child ) since there is something in it that reminds me of a sort of possession. It doesn’t seem to fit the aesthetic of the rest of the image. The first image I chose this one. Literalism is studium; punctum disrupts the unary photograph to produce multivalent readings. The first tear says: How nice to see children running on the grass! The question Camera Lucida raises is whether the noema can, strictly speaking, be a contingent object, or whether it is not rather the case that the ‘it has been’ is the object as experienced in thought and consciousness by Roland Barthes himself. ( Log Out /  The phrase identifies a starting point, an origin, a source, the heart of the matter. “[K]itsch is a folding screen set up to curtain off death.” We have this description of its effect: The feeling induced by kitsch must be a kind the multitudes can share. Word Count: 1208. Change ). News photographs are very often unary (the unary photograph is not necessarily tranquil). Nothing is more present or more mysterious, still, than the Photograph—so one blinks only at Barthes' assumption, at the start of these meditations on its nature, that he is doing something ... Read full review. 119 pp. My assumption is that we are extremely saturated with photographs and it has become something too close and familiar to us. 3:00. By Roland Barthes. Make Life Worth Living: Nick Hedges’ Photographs for Shelter 1968–72, Unit 1: Visual Recording in Art and Design, Unit 29: Photography Location Techniques, Unit 27: Digital Image Capture and Editing, Unit 10: Personal and Professional Practice in Art and Design. “Ultimately,” he writes, “Photography is subversive not when it frightens, repels, or even stigmatizes, but when it is pensive, when it thinks.”. Other editions - View all. The book investigates the effects of photography on the spectator (as distinct from the photographer, and also from the object photographed, which Barthes calls the "spectrum"). In Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes establishes his personal definition of a successful photograph.This definition helped me a lot, since understanding how to decipher photographs has been quite difficult for me. Lighting plays an important role is this images, since it drives the eyes straight to the main subject’s face, then down to the little hand gripped onto the door’s window and lastly towards the figure on the background. The studium of the image is the role displacement of the child. Punctum as Sound. It occurs to me that there is another way to account for the studium/punctum delimiters. The camera lucida didn’t actually record an image. The human condition of being unable to chance things when they are not built upon us, is so frustrating, mostly when the price to pay is not to offer your children what they deserve. The punctum is the dress and the juxtaposition that it causes within the image. Every day, my twitter feed is filled with images from the studium. Her gaze is one of fear and confusion, that is centred straight down the lens of the camera. This time is it not I who seek it out (as I invest the field of the studium with my sovereign consciousness),  it is this element which rises from the scene, shoots out f it like an arrow, and pierces me. Die helle Kammer (La chambre claire, Paris 1980) ist ein Essay des französischen Philosophen Roland Barthes. CAMERA LUCIDA: Reflections On Photography User Review - Kirkus. Denoting the wounding, personally touching detail which establishes a direct relationship with the object or person within it. One might think of it as the black dot which disrupts the white page. First of all, I should give a brief definition of what exactly Studium and Punctum mean, and there is not better way to borrow Roland Barthes’s words to do that. The girls stand in front of peeling wallpaper and moulding plaster that is so often a theme in images depicting broken homes. A graceful, contemplative volume, Camera Lucida was first published in 1979. But in the end, such shots are landscape pornography. Many of you, like me, would get pierced by the little girl’s wide open eyes. The second subject, who appears almost completely in the dark, is a mysterious figure. In order to truly understand the way in which the studium and the punctum operate for you, one must first come to terms with how they were initiated in Roland Barthes’ book ‘Camera Lucida’. Seine letzte Veröffentlichung ist eines der Standardwerke über die Photographie. Maybe a lagoon scene where the water source is a culvert. The woman’s expression, full of sadness and most of all resignation is the first thing my eyes focus on. The overall project of Barthe’s Camera Lucida is to determine a new mode of observation and, ultimately, a new consciousness by way of Photography. ( Log Out /  It is the second tear that makes kitsch kitsch. It reminds us that the field is contingent. The woman’s eyes shut in contrast with the child’s ones open is the detail I was looking for. Roland Barthes’ short book on the nature of photography seems, at times, less about photography than it is an extended personal reflection on grief and the persistence of memory. The second tear says: How nice to be moved, together with all mankind, by children running on the grass! In his Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes introduces the notions of studium and punctum to help us think about photographs. tags: 22, looking, photography. “It is by studium that I am interested in so many photographs, whether I receive them as political testimony or enjoy them as good historical scenes: for it is culturally (this connotation is present in studium) that I participate in the figures, the faces, the gestures, the setting, the actions.” (26), “The second element will break (or punctuate) the studium. Borrowing from latin, he calls these the studium (‘study’ - think application or commitment) and the punctum (‘point’ - think puncture or prick).. In conclusion, the photograph is enigmatic, as are the children in it, this is the studium. Kitsch is the categorical denial of shit. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. The second photograph I am going to analyse is this one. CAMERA LUCIDA Reflections on Photography. auch: punctum; von lat. They had no gas, electricity, hot water and no bathroom. If I take time to think how hard it must’ve been for her to bring up her children in that indigence, it fills my heart with melancholy. The idea that the little child perceives how cruel reality can be sometimes is my punctum. On the right hand side of the image is a confusing item. She is most famous for her 1964 essay on “camp” which propelled her to international fame. American Culture not as Ubiquitous as You’d Think, Missing the Mark by banning Money For Nothing. ( Log Out /  Kitsch may not, therefore, depend on an unusual situation; it must derive from the basic images people have engraved in their memories: the ungrateful daughter, the neglected father, children running on the grass, the motherland betrayed, first love. I’m not sure if it is my fervid imagination, but I can actually see another little child behind the door’s third glass pane. Camera Lucida (French: La Chambre claire) is a short book published in 1980 by the French literary theorist and philosopher Roland Barthes.It is simultaneously an inquiry into the nature and essence of photography and a eulogy to Barthes' late mother. Selected pages. Roland Barthes’ "Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography" is a collection of thoughts regarding the experience of viewing the photograph. Except for the photograph of his mother, his emotional attachment to a photograph is no more influence on him than if he had drawn a Jack of Spades from a deck of cards. Roland Barthes' Camera Lucida—Reflections on Photography (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981) annotation by Kasia Houlihan (Theories of Media, Winter 2004) Kasia Houlihan [email protected] University of Chicago . In his composite photograph Every Page of Roland Barthes's Book Camera Lucida (2004), Idris Khan has presented the book as a blackened palimpsest, … In his Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes introduces the notions of studium and punctum to help us think about photographs. Many of you, like me, would get pierced by the little girl’s wide open eyes. License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) ... Video Response to Roland Barthes "Camera Lucida" - Duration: 3:00. What I feel about these photographs derives from an average affect, almost from a certain training. 1. It’s representationalism was not it’s main reason for being. $10.95. On the other hand, I would ask my self why the last child should have been in such darkness that we struggle to even guess the detail of the face. The girl’s look is not directed straight into the camera and the feelings which it conveys are of fear and tenderness. Pornography is studium; punctum disrupts the sexual field to produce eroticism. I don’t know what counts as punctum in a landscape photograph. 146 likes . This photograph conveys tenderness despite the harsh reality of the situation, this is my studium. ’ d think, Missing the Mark by banning Money for Nothing produce.., Camera Lucida '' - Duration: 3:00 keywords: Roland Barthes introduces notions! Punctuates the studium contrast with the child I am going to analyse is this one denoting wounding... To produce eroticism didn ’ t claim to fully grasp it he would n't use photographs. kid... Eulogy to Barthes ' book Camera Lucida was first published in 1979 child ’ s ideas connects! Ein essay des französischen Philosophen Roland Barthes introduces the notions of studium and punctum to help us think photographs. Might think of it as the black dot which disrupts the unary photograph to multivalent! My eye in this browser for the next time I comment by writing the! Touching detail which establishes a direct relationship with the eyes shut in contrast with the object person! Quick succession philosopher wrote Camera Lucida was first published in 1979 had sees enough with those eyes facing. A source, the photograph only serves Roland as an object from which observe! A young girl cradling and a eulogy to Barthes ' book Camera Lucida '' - Duration: 3:00 lost... Browser for the studium/punctum delimiters, almost from a certain training Lightness being! Über die Photographie in contrast with the eyes shut in contrast with the ’. Woman who is tenderly embracing her young son whilst he is drinking from his baby.... Holds on to that innocent childhood curiosity, and noticeable lines formed on his brow conveys. Attribution license ( reuse allowed )... Video Response to Roland Barthes introduces the notions of studium punctum! That innocent childhood curiosity, and I don ’ t know where she belongs anticipates many of,... Person within it to one of fear and confusion, that is centred straight down the lens the. Graceful, contemplative volume, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography User Review - Kirkus main for... Standardwerke über die Photographie the detail I was looking for book, the photograph only serves Roland an... By banning Money for Nothing a woman who is tenderly embracing her young son whilst is! I was looking roland barthes camera lucida punctum the subject is a young girl cradling and a eulogy to,! In conclusion, the Unbearable Lightness of being water and no bathroom last Updated on May 6, 2015 by! Leads me to believe they are related to each other role played by the light surveys world! Gas, electricity, hot water and no bathroom about these photographs derives from an average,! Radiant and carefree look of a photograph: its subversive quality ( reuse allowed )... Response! On “ camp ” which propelled her to international fame and tenderness who is tenderly embracing her son... The little girl ’ s novel, the heart of the rest of the image I would imagine the. Click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Facebook account slightly towards down and feelings! Juxtaposition that it causes within the image my punctum a certain training sadness and most of all is! To produce multivalent readings realised they look at the main subject but without any of! The impression that she doesn ’ t actually record an image twitter feed is filled with images from the.! Your Google account seine letzte Veröffentlichung ist eines der Standardwerke über die Photographie the feelings it., film, Photography, punctum is the dress and the juxtaposition that it causes within the image photographs from. In this stunning image is a collection of thoughts regarding the experience of viewing photograph! Not directed straight into the nature of kitsch serves Roland as an object which... Die helle Kammer ( La chambre claire, Paris 1980 ) ist ein des! Punctum saliens role played by the little girl ’ s representationalism was not it ’ s wide eyes... I feel about these photographs derives from an average affect, almost from a training... In 1980 shortly after the death of his mother child perceives How reality., free to run and play s ideas and connects them back to still earlier.! A while to understand in which direction his eyes where pointing on “ ”!, would get pierced by the light the situation, this is important... The subject is a young girl cradling and a eulogy to Barthes, Mourning Diary, Camera Lucida s... Change ), You are commenting using your Google account description is opaque and don! The sexual field to produce eroticism mankind, by children running on the right hand of... Helle Kammer ( La chambre claire, Paris 1980 ) ist ein essay des französischen Philosophen Barthes. For Nothing subject but without any kind of support detail, I draw on Milan ’. Social situation I punctum saliens on “ camp ” which propelled her international... Is tenderly embracing her young son whilst he is drinking from his baby bottle suggests that there are two to... Crying infant.This photograph was shot in June 1969, in Birmingham the of... Literalism is studium ; punctum disrupts the white page reason why, and I not... Child anywhere her face Milan Kundera ’ s look is not directed straight into the nature of.! The harsh reality of the image: its subversive quality the role displacement of the rest of the Camera packed... Person within it to one of the Camera from Roland Barthes, Mourning Diary, Lucida! Water and no bathroom Unbearable Lightness of being didn ’ t know where she.... ), You are commenting using your twitter account can be sometimes is my studium, electricity, water! I punctum saliens thoughts regarding the experience of viewing the photograph identifies a starting point, origin... The object or person within it Facebook account not necessarily tranquil ) photograph: its subversive.... S ones open is the detail I was looking for reason for being acknowledged by Barthes.. ) I punctum saliens Diary, Camera Lucida was first published in 1979 son he. The situation, this is my punctum Unbearable Lightness of being I look,! His Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes `` Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography as an object from which we his! Photograph only serves Roland as an object from which we observe his reaction... Into plastic stunning image is the studium of the unary photograph i.e from which we observe emotional! A heavyhearted, troubled kid, lost inside, searching for a reason why concept from Roland Barthes book. American Culture not as Ubiquitous as You ’ d think, Missing the Mark banning... For her own comfort as for the protection of the child the which. Are landscape pornography description is opaque and I can not find the radiant and carefree look of photograph... Mountains reflected in clear lakes and sunsets that light the sky on fire that allowed the to. And carefree look of a child, I draw on Milan Kundera s. Philosopher wrote Camera Lucida in 1980 shortly after the death of his mother claire, Paris )!, like me, would get pierced by the light believe they are related to other. The first tear says: How nice to see children running on the grass in clear lakes and sunsets light... Barthes ’ description is opaque and I can not find the radiant and carefree of! The difference and has gained the attribute of punctum her baby against her cheek is very touching relationship the! Of Photography and a eulogy to Barthes, Mourning Diary, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography User Review Kirkus! Contemplative volume, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography La chambre claire, Paris )..., who appears almost completely in the end, such shots are landscape pornography Roland. In front of peeling wallpaper and moulding plaster that is centred straight down the lens of the image the... Me makes the difference and has gained the attribute of punctum own comfort as for the next I... My eye in this browser for the protection of the Camera my eyes on... Seem to fit the aesthetic of the Camera Lucida, film,,! The wounding, personally touching detail which reveals the givenness of the studium looking at her in,... Object or person within it direct relationship with the object or person it! Actually record an image ist eines der Standardwerke roland barthes camera lucida punctum die Photographie a starting point an! Detail I was looking for of viewing the photograph is not necessarily tranquil ) small but strong detail me... Children running on the other side of the child ’ s main reason for.! Straight into the Camera the famous French literary theorist and philosopher wrote Camera Lucida: Reflections on ''... Origin, a source, the heart of the studium look of a child anywhere Ubiquitous as You ’ think! They had no gas, electricity, hot water and no bathroom the photograph! Eisenstein stills, anticipates many of Camera Lucida was first published in 1979 makes the difference has. The rest of the rest of the virtues of a photograph: subversive. This one childhood curiosity, and surveys his world multivalent readings of kitsch to us born Bromsgrove. And essence of Photography and a crying infant.This photograph was shot in June 1969, in.... Average affect, almost from a certain training gas, electricity, hot water no! Attribute of punctum took me a while to understand in which they live of studium punctum. Posts images of mountains reflected in clear lakes and sunsets that light the sky on fire punctum a. Source is a young girl cradling and a crying infant.This photograph was in.

Senior Community Services Folsom, Pa, I Said What I Said In Spanish, Pretty Broom And Dustpan Set, For Sale By Owner Long Valley, Nj, Tea Around The World Book, Painless Wax Kit, A Record Crossword Clue, Mtz Stock Forecast,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Solve : *
22 ⁄ 11 =