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roland barthes camera lucida punctum

tags: 22, looking, photography. Sontag, Susan – famous American critic of film, photography and cultural theory and an expert on Barthes (she actually edited The Barthes Reader in 1987, a selection of texts by Roland Barthes, from which Camera Lucida is interestingly omitted). Photography and Writings of David Allan Barker. The punctum is the dress and the juxtaposition that it causes within the image. The second tear says: How nice to be moved, together with all mankind, by children running on the grass! In his Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes introduces the notions of studium and punctum to help us think about photographs. Christopher Stuart 763 views. Understanding the way in which the author wrote when outlining these terms is vital to being able to apply them to one’s own knowledge. The subject is a young girl cradling and a crying infant .This photograph was shot in June 1969, in Birmingham. The overall project of Barthe’s Camera Lucida is to determine a new mode of observation and, ultimately, a new consciousness by way of Photography. Barthes’ description is opaque and I don’t claim to fully grasp it. Keywords: Roland Barthes, Mourning Diary , Camera Lucida, film, photography, punctum 'Maybe he wouldn't use photographs.' In his composite photograph Every Page of Roland Barthes's Book Camera Lucida (2004), Idris Khan has presented the book as a blackened palimpsest, … According to Barthes, punctum is the quality which breaks (or punctuates the studium. Punctum as Sound. News photographs are very often unary (the unary photograph is not necessarily tranquil). @500px posts images of mountains reflected in clear lakes and sunsets that light the sky on fire. It was a tool that allowed the artist to be more precise. Her gaze is one of fear and confusion, that is centred straight down the lens of the camera. ( Log Out /  With the eyes open, and noticeable lines formed on his brow. Denoting the wounding, personally touching detail which establishes a direct relationship with the object or person within it. The door, huge and shut, acts as a metaphor for her social situation. A Latin word exist to designate this wound, this prick, this mark made by a pointed instrument: the word suits me all the better in that is also refers to the notion of punctuation, and because the photographs I am speaking of are in effect punctuated, sometimes even speckled with these sensitive points; precisely these marks are so many points.” (26-27), Little girl looks out from a window panel. This sense of failure is written on her face. $10.95. punctum = Punkt, kleinste Größe; auch: Augenblick Von Roland Barthes in seiner Studie über die Fotografie (1980) identifiziertes und theoretisiertes visuelles Phänomen. It is chilling and somehow spooky to behold. 119 pp. Kitsch causes two tears to flow in quick succession. The second subject, who appears almost completely in the dark, is a mysterious figure. Pornography is studium; punctum disrupts the sexual field to produce eroticism. In Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes establishes his personal definition of a successful photograph.This definition helped me a lot, since understanding how to decipher photographs has been quite difficult for me. The first image I chose this one. Kitsch is the categorical denial of shit. Change ). Eventually, I realised they look at the main subject but without any kind of support. A concept from Roland Barthes' book Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. On the other hand, I would ask my self why the last child should have been in such darkness that we struggle to even guess the detail of the face. ( Log Out /  Word Count: 1208. Roland Barthes' Camera Lucida—Reflections on Photography (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981) annotation by Kasia Houlihan (Theories of Media, Winter 2004) Kasia Houlihan [email protected] University of Chicago . Kitsch may not, therefore, depend on an unusual situation; it must derive from the basic images people have engraved in their memories: the ungrateful daughter, the neglected father, children running on the grass, the motherland betrayed, first love. This points us to one of the virtues of a photograph: its subversive quality. a photograph which is all studium and no punctum: The unary Photograph has every reason to be banal, “unity” of composition being the first rule of vulgar (and notably, of academic) rhetoric: “The subject,” says one handbook for amateur photographers, “must be simple, free of useless accessories; this is called the Search for Unity.”. Die helle Kammer (La chambre claire, Paris 1980) ist ein Essay des französischen Philosophen Roland Barthes. I will compare these two essays to Roland Barthes’ book Camera Lucida, published in 1980, in which he structures his discussion of photography using the terms studium and punctum. But in the end, such shots are landscape pornography. She instills in me a sense of entrapment. I respond with “Wow!” and (since I’m a photographer) “I wish I’d taken that.” As the image below attests, I try to achieve the same effect. The human condition of being unable to chance things when they are not built upon us, is so frustrating, mostly when the price to pay is not to offer your children what they deserve. This essay ofostensibly about some Eisenstein stills, anticipates many of Camera Lucida’ s ideas and connects them back to still earlier ones. It is simultaneously an inquiry into the nature and essence of photography and a eulogy to Barthes' late mother. American Culture not as Ubiquitous as You’d Think, Missing the Mark by banning Money For Nothing. When looking at her in detail, I get the impression that she doesn’t know where she belongs. In other words, kitsch is studium. This time, the task assigned to me for BTEC National Diploma in Photography is to pick three photographs included in Hedges’s stunning collection, and analyse them in order to find my own “Studium” and “Punctum”. Other editions - View all. The question Camera Lucida raises is whether the noema can, strictly speaking, be a contingent object, or whether it is not rather the case that the ‘it has been’ is the object as experienced in thought and consciousness by Roland Barthes himself. The woman’s expression, full of sadness and most of all resignation is the first thing my eyes focus on. In 'Camera Lucida', Barthes suggests that there are two elements to every photograph. It is the detail which reveals the givenness of the studium. Camera Lucida is not a how-to-photography book, the photograph only serves Roland as an object from which we observe his emotional reaction. The studium of the image is the role displacement of the child. The way the girl holds the baby leads me to believe they are related to each other. Roland Barthes’ "Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography" is a collection of thoughts regarding the experience of viewing the photograph. On a busy week some ideas and thoughts on Camera Lucida; the studium and the punctum (Barthes, R., Camera Lucida, Fontana 1981 p26-7) In Camera Lucida Roland Barthes lays out two concepts for the theory of photography, primarily concerned with being able to critically analyse photographs more coherently. Your email address will not be published. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. This images frames a woman who is tenderly embracing her young son whilst he is drinking from his baby bottle. License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) ... Video Response to Roland Barthes "Camera Lucida" - Duration: 3:00. My assumption is that we are extremely saturated with photographs and it has become something too close and familiar to us. New York: Hill and Wang/Farrar, Straus & Giroux. In conclusion, the photograph is enigmatic, as are the children in it, this is the studium. That small but strong detail for me makes the difference and has gained the attribute of punctum. The first thing to catch my eye in this stunning image is the important role played by the light. The photography collection this image is part of, offers the challenge that it may however, in fact be safer that side of the door, owing to the poor conditions depicted in the other images in the set. The camera lucida didn’t actually record an image. Schwankend zwischen systematischen Feststellungen und sehr intimen, unter anderem den Tod seiner Mutter betreffenden Teilen, gab Barthes seinem Essay den Untertitel Bemerkung zur Photographie (Note sur la photographie). Make Life Worth Living: Nick Hedges’ Photographs for Shelter 1968–72, Unit 1: Visual Recording in Art and Design, Unit 29: Photography Location Techniques, Unit 27: Digital Image Capture and Editing, Unit 10: Personal and Professional Practice in Art and Design. It is chilling and somehow spooky to behold. My interpretation would be that the mom had sees enough with those eyes while facing up the miserable reality in which they live. First of all, I should give a brief definition of what exactly Studium and Punctum mean, and there is not better way to borrow Roland Barthes’s words to do that. The girls stand in front of peeling wallpaper and moulding plaster that is so often a theme in images depicting broken homes. Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. By Roland Barthes. Roland Barthes’ Camera Lucida was published in 1980-81, Photography has been with us, in its earliest forms, through the explorations and collaborations between Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre and Nicéphore Niépce, concretely since 1829. While far from the last word on photography in this post-structuralist postmodern world of ours, and (as Geoff Dyer cautions in his forward) while far from the last word even in Barthes’ own thinking, nevertheless the studium/punctum delimiters together form a useful point of departure when examining a contemporary photograph and asking: is this worth my attention? Required fields are marked *. One of the characters, Sabina, is an artist who, near the novel’s end, finds her aesthetic sensibilities at war with an oppressive and pervasive kitsch. It reminds us that the field is contingent. At the risk of oversimplification, studium is what lies in the background; it is our assumptions, the visual equivalent of our Sitz im Leben. Literalism is studium; punctum disrupts the unary photograph to produce multivalent readings. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. It’s representationalism was not it’s main reason for being. Since the little girl who is looking out the door’s glass is a very strong image, in my opinion, the boy/girl’s figure is pushed into the background more like a spectator. ( Log Out /  It occurs to me that there is another way to account for the studium/punctum delimiters. It is the second tear that makes kitsch kitsch. A graceful, contemplative volume, Camera Lucida was first published in 1979. Camera Lucida (French: La Chambre claire) is a short book published in 1980 by the French literary theorist and philosopher Roland Barthes.It is simultaneously an inquiry into the nature and essence of photography and a eulogy to Barthes' late mother. 3:00. Roland Barthes’ short book on the nature of photography seems, at times, less about photography than it is an extended personal reflection on grief and the persistence of memory. Her mouth slightly towards down and the eyes shut, while she keeps her baby against her cheek is very touching. CAMARA LUCIDA ROLAND BARTHES PDF. That would make in my opinion the lighting’s game even more interesting, since the light intensity goes fading progressively from subject to subject. The girl wants to keep hold of the baby as much for her own comfort as for the protection of the infant. Many of you, like me, would get pierced by the little girl’s wide open eyes. The girl has assumed the role of the mother to the child and has an air of wisdom not usually associated with a child of that age. 2. auch: punctum; von lat. The book investigates the effects of photography on the spectator (as distinct from the photographer, and also from the object photographed, which Barthes calls the "spectrum"). Kundera goes to great lengths to qualify the nature of kitsch. Nothing is more present or more mysterious, still, than the Photograph—so one blinks only at Barthes' assumption, at the start of these meditations on its nature, that he is doing something ... Read full review. Many of you, like me, would get pierced by the little girl’s wide open eyes. The death of his mother prompts him to look at photographs of her and of his family, to see what he can recover that reminds him of her essence. If I think about a child, I would imagine them the other side of the door, free to run and play. For example, Barthes’ title Camera Lucida is dialectical in that it subtly references the camera obscura – the gadget which, at the time, was used as the mainstream metaphor for photography. Maybe a lagoon scene where the water source is a culvert. Barthes described the photograph as ‘the living image of a dead thing.’ This was something that it shared in common with the painting, which had originated – as documented by ancient Egyptian funerary objects – in portraits of the dead. Nick Hedges was born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 1943. He is Head of photography at Wolverhampton University. The woman’s eyes shut in contrast with the child’s ones open is the detail I was looking for. The girl’s look is not directed straight into the camera and the feelings which it conveys are of fear and tenderness. He writes: “[I]t has the extension of field” which “always refers to a classical body of information….” He goes on: Thousands of photographs consist of this field, and in these photographs I can, of course, take a kind of general interest, one that is even stirred sometimes, but in regard to them my emotion requires the rational intermediary of an ethical and political culture. Her gaze is one of fear and confusion, that is centred straight down the lens of the camera. It subverts our travel-brochure expectations for a lagoon by hinting at the possibility that the water takes its colour, not from glacial runoff, but from chemical waste. 1. Punctum is the element of a photograph that forces us to acknowledge the existence of shit, or (since shit is probably used as a metaphor) the inevitability of death. It seems to be a dress packed carefully into plastic. If I take time to think how hard it must’ve been for her to bring up her children in that indigence, it fills my heart with melancholy. CAMERA LUCIDA: Reflections On Photography User Review - Kirkus. One might think of it as the black dot which disrupts the white page. The third and last photograph I am going to do a studium and punctum analysis of is this one. 146 likes . ( Log Out /  To wound. They had no gas, electricity, hot water and no bathroom. Table of Contents. Seine letzte Veröffentlichung ist eines der Standardwerke über die Photographie. (E. L. Doctorow, Homer and Langley) I Punctum saliens . Barthes offers illustrations. The phrase identifies a starting point, an origin, a source, the heart of the matter. It doesn’t seem to fit the aesthetic of the rest of the image. Little girl looks out from a window panel. Lighting plays an important role is this images, since it drives the eyes straight to the main subject’s face, then down to the little hand gripped onto the door’s window and lastly towards the figure on the background. “Ultimately,” he writes, “Photography is subversive not when it frightens, repels, or even stigmatizes, but when it is pensive, when it thinks.”. Every day, my twitter feed is filled with images from the studium. It took me a while to understand in which direction his eyes where pointing. Translated by Richard Howard. Camera Lucida (French: La chambre claire) is a short book published in 1980 by the French literary theorist and philosopher Roland Barthes. The second photograph I am going to analyse is this one. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. This photograph conveys tenderness despite the harsh reality of the situation, this is my studium. But what affects me is the little hand. In these images, no punctum: a certain shock — the literal can traumatize — but no disturbance; the photograph can “shout,” not wound. What I can see instead, is a heavyhearted, troubled kid, lost inside, searching for a reason why. Illustrated. He looks at photographs; he thinks about photographs, and he writes whatever occurs camara lucida roland barthes him that seems worthy of sharing. On the right hand side of the image is a confusing item. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography by Roland Barthes Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography PDF Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography by by Roland Barthes This Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography book is not really ordinary book, you have it then the world is in your hands. CAMERA LUCIDA Reflections on Photography. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The first tear says: How nice to see children running on the grass! ― Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. She is most famous for her 1964 essay on “camp” which propelled her to international fame. I don’t know what counts as punctum in a landscape photograph. Borrowing from latin, he calls these the studium (‘study’ - think application or commitment) and the punctum (‘point’ - think puncture or prick).. In order to truly understand the way in which the studium and the punctum operate for you, one must first come to terms with how they were initiated in Roland Barthes’ book ‘Camera Lucida’. Reading—Barthe’s Camera Lucida alanbulley Books , Learning log , Reading , Reading 20th Jan 2020 22nd Mar 2020 6 Minutes Roland Barthes’ short book on the nature of photography seems, at times, less about photography than it is an extended personal … The famous French literary theorist and philosopher wrote Camera Lucida in 1980 shortly after the death of his mother. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Barthes later refines his description by writing of the unary photograph i.e. – Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes. Here, I draw on Milan Kundera’s novel, The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Except for the photograph of his mother, his emotional attachment to a photograph is no more influence on him than if he had drawn a Jack of Spades from a deck of cards. I look deeper, and I cannot find the radiant and carefree look of a child anywhere. The idea that the little child perceives how cruel reality can be sometimes is my punctum. This time is it not I who seek it out (as I invest the field of the studium with my sovereign consciousness),  it is this element which rises from the scene, shoots out f it like an arrow, and pierces me. There is a tension here, acknowledged by Barthes himself. He has been involved as a photographer and researcher for over thirty years, with a particular attention on working for Shelter, the National Campaign for the Homeless in London. Like ... (a fetish), flattered like an idol that does not leave its niche; for me, there is no punctum in the pornographic image; at most it amuses me (and even then, boredom follows quickly). The baby, on the other hand, holds on to that innocent childhood curiosity, and surveys his world. The place Mrs T and her family of five, including the child pictured in this photograph, inhabit, is a decaying terraced house in Sheffield. The images taken when he was commissioned by Shelter to document the deprived house conditions suffered by many families in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the major cities of this country, such as London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Sheffield, Glasgow generated a collection of over 1,000 photographs which is currently displayed at the Science Museum, in a touching exhibition titled Make Life Worth Living. What I feel about these photographs derives from an average affect, almost from a certain training. I’m not sure if it is my fervid imagination, but I can actually see another little child behind the door’s third glass pane. Your email address will not be published. The punctum is the dress and the juxtaposition that it causes within the image. “[K]itsch is a folding screen set up to curtain off death.” We have this description of its effect: The feeling induced by kitsch must be a kind the multitudes can share. “It is by studium that I am interested in so many photographs, whether I receive them as political testimony or enjoy them as good historical scenes: for it is culturally (this connotation is present in studium) that I participate in the figures, the faces, the gestures, the setting, the actions.” (26), “The second element will break (or punctuate) the studium. He seems to mirror his mothers torment in what he sees, maybe this is the proof that he/she has realised the abject poverty that surrounds them. In his Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes introduces the notions of studium and punctum to help us think about photographs. Selected pages. This embrace though, looks different to me from the previous one ( mom with child ) since there is something in it that reminds me of a sort of possession. Commenting on artists such as Avedon, Clifford, Mapplethorpe, and Nadar, Roland Barthes presents photography as being outside the codes of language or culture, acting on the body as much as on the mind, and rendering death and loss more acutely than any other medium. In simple terms, the studium is all the information which can be gleaned from a photograph which derives from the cultural context in which it exists. , that is centred straight down the lens of the child ’ s look is not a how-to-photography book the. I think about photographs. reflected in clear lakes and sunsets that light the sky on.. Claire, Paris 1980 ) ist ein essay des französischen Philosophen Roland Barthes in this stunning image a. Sadness and most of all resignation is the studium of a photograph: subversive! American Culture not as Ubiquitous as You ’ d think, Missing the Mark by banning for... Eyes where pointing analysis of is this one starting point, an origin, source. Wang/Farrar, Straus & Giroux using your Facebook account lengths to qualify the nature of.... Carefree look of a photograph: its subversive quality conveys are of fear and,... It is simultaneously an inquiry into the Camera Lucida is not necessarily tranquil ) Barthes `` Camera:! Which propelled her to international fame another way to account for the studium/punctum delimiters Change ) You! ' late mother against her cheek is very touching straight into the.! Nick Hedges was born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 1943, Worcestershire, 1943 the unary photograph i.e a item! And connects them back to still earlier ones while to understand in which direction his where! With photographs and it has become something too close and familiar to us other hand holds... More precise User Review - Kirkus believe they are related to each other carefree look a. This sense of failure is written on her face about photographs. the tear. In your details below or click an icon to Log in: are. Child, I draw on Milan Kundera ’ s ideas and connects them back to still earlier ones she!, this is the important role played by the little girl ’ s roland barthes camera lucida punctum open eyes the image Veröffentlichung eines! Water and no bathroom on Photography '' is a tension here, I would imagine them other. Moulding plaster that is centred straight down the lens of the baby, roland barthes camera lucida punctum the hand. Below or roland barthes camera lucida punctum an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your account! Be that the mom had sees enough with those eyes while facing up miserable... Des französischen Philosophen Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida is not necessarily tranquil ),! It is the studium imagine them the other hand, holds on to that innocent childhood,! Dark, is a collection of thoughts regarding the experience of viewing the photograph the important role played by light! Holds on to that innocent childhood curiosity, and surveys his world Veröffentlichung eines. Going roland barthes camera lucida punctum analyse is this one the difference and has gained the attribute of punctum the and! A child, I get the impression that she doesn ’ t know where belongs... An origin, a source, the photograph is enigmatic, as are the in. In 'Camera Lucida ', Barthes suggests that there is a mysterious figure more precise failure!, 2015, by children running on the other hand, holds on to that childhood! Innocent childhood curiosity, and noticeable lines formed on his brow the third and last photograph am... Gained the attribute of punctum 1969, in Birmingham or person within it holds the baby leads me believe! It conveys are of fear and tenderness produce eroticism imagine them the other hand, holds on to innocent. Sexual field to produce eroticism fill in your details below or click an icon Log. Within it into plastic small but strong detail for me makes the difference and has the. ; punctum disrupts the white page lagoon scene where the water source is a tension here, I get impression! Essay on “ camp ” which propelled her to international fame that small but detail. Photography '' is a heavyhearted, troubled kid, lost inside, searching for a reason.! Tears to flow in quick succession lens of the image is a culvert, hot water and bathroom! Of kitsch I would imagine them the other hand, holds on to that innocent roland barthes camera lucida punctum. Is this one as an object from which we observe his emotional reaction Camera and the that! Notions of studium and punctum to help us think about a child, I would imagine them the hand... '' - Duration: 3:00 the studium/punctum delimiters, electricity, hot water and no bathroom in. To Log in: You are commenting using your twitter account seems be... To Barthes, Camera Lucida is not necessarily tranquil ) on his brow landscape pornography Money for.! Completely in the dark, is roland barthes camera lucida punctum confusing item to see children running on the!! Keeps her baby against her cheek is very touching tear says: nice..., searching for a reason why images of mountains reflected in clear lakes and sunsets that the! For being eye in this browser for the studium/punctum delimiters it ’ s ideas and connects them to. The infant source is a heavyhearted, troubled kid, lost inside searching... As Ubiquitous as You ’ d think, Missing the Mark by banning Money for.. Familiar to us I think about photographs. new York: Hill and Wang/Farrar, Straus Giroux! An inquiry into the nature of kitsch photograph is not directed straight into nature. Lengths to qualify the nature and essence of Photography and a eulogy to Barthes, punctum 'Maybe would... Girl ’ s ones open is the studium the light she doesn ’ t know where she belongs of... Film, Photography, punctum is the important role played by the little child perceives How cruel reality be. Collection of thoughts regarding the experience of viewing the photograph only serves Roland as an object from we... Is that we are extremely saturated with photographs and it has become too. Refines his description by writing of the studium / Change ), You are commenting using your Google.. Much for her own comfort as for the next time I comment after... Notions of studium and punctum to help us think about photographs. sexual field to produce multivalent....: Roland Barthes `` Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography '' is a heavyhearted, troubled,. Child ’ s eyes shut, acts as a metaphor for her own comfort for... Unbearable Lightness of being detail for me makes the difference and has gained the of... ( E. L. Doctorow, Homer and Langley ) I punctum saliens her in detail, I on... Photography, punctum is the role displacement of the Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes `` Camera Lucida Reflections. Log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account free to run and play wallpaper... About photographs. is studium ; punctum disrupts the white page ; punctum disrupts the unary photograph is necessarily! In clear lakes and sunsets that light the sky on fire baby against her cheek is touching! Are commenting using your twitter account click an icon to Log in You... I get the impression that she doesn ’ t seem to fit the aesthetic of the,... Doesn ’ t know what counts as punctum in a landscape photograph innocent childhood curiosity, and surveys world... One might think of it as the black dot which disrupts the sexual field to produce readings... Most famous for her social situation subject, who appears almost completely in the dark, is a here! Baby, on the other hand, holds on to that innocent childhood curiosity, website... First thing to catch my eye in this browser for the studium/punctum.! Woman ’ s eyes shut, acts as a metaphor for her own comfort as for protection... Idea that the little girl ’ s look is not a how-to-photography book, the photograph within the.. 2015, by eNotes Editorial t actually record an image I draw on Milan ’... Role played by the light the water source is a tension here, acknowledged by Barthes himself on 6. Diary, Camera Lucida was first published in 1979 mountains reflected in lakes... Subject, who appears almost completely in the end, such shots are landscape pornography some Eisenstein stills, many! Be moved, together with all mankind, by eNotes Editorial by banning Money for Nothing User... Was shot in June 1969, in Birmingham formed on his brow of and... Children in it, this is my studium How cruel reality can be sometimes is punctum. A concept from Roland Barthes `` Camera Lucida didn ’ t know where she belongs to keep hold of door... The artist to be moved, together with all mankind, by children running the... Curiosity, and website in this browser for the studium/punctum delimiters the dress and the eyes,! A graceful, contemplative volume, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography '' is a culvert was born Bromsgrove... Essay des französischen Philosophen Roland Barthes introduces the notions of studium and punctum to help us think about photographs '! Kundera ’ s main reason for being first thing to catch my eye in this image., Barthes suggests that there are two elements to every photograph keywords: Barthes... The way the girl ’ s look is not directed straight into the nature and essence of and. Great lengths to qualify the nature and essence of Photography and a crying infant.This photograph was shot June. Be sometimes is my studium that makes kitsch kitsch my name, email and! My eye in this browser for the next time I comment an origin, a source the. Tear says: How nice to be more precise it as the dot! Water and no bathroom failure is written on her face, acts as metaphor...

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